Lungworm larvae may be present in slugs and snails, and if eaten, pets may be infected with worms that make their way to the lungs, where they block airways and make breathing difficult. Most dog wormers don't claim to treat lungworm, although some cat wormers do. Research conducted internationally has found moxidectin, which is found in some heartworm treatments for dogs, to be effective against lungworm, but this claim can't be made for dogs on packaging in Australia. Check with your vet as to whether it's an issue in your area, and discuss the best preventative treatment.
Pedigree or purebred dogs are more expensive to buy if purchased from a breeder and their nature and appearance is generally predictable (as they should conform to a breed standard). Crossbreeds (or 'designer dogs') are dogs of mixed ancestry. They are robust and often make great pets. Keep in mind though, that when you purchase a crossbred puppy it might be difficult to accurately predict how these puppies will develop. Both purebred and crossbred puppies and adult dogs are available at RSPCA Adoption Centres.
Most poisoning of dogs is accidental. Garden poisons, such as snail baits, are the main cause. If your dog is known to eat just about anything, then be particularly careful to store poisons where they will not be accessible to him. Dogs found foaming at the mouth, with muscle tremors or staggering gait, or unable to stand, should receive immediate veterinary treatment.
However, if you decide to keep your dog outdoors, it is important to consider how you'll ensure it receives the appropriate amount of human contact (particularly during those cold winter months in which we'd all much rather stay snuggled inside rather than playing fetch with our pals in the cold!). An option could be to enlist the service of a dog walker. Also, if you work long hours or are sometimes forced to take overnight trips, it may be useful to consider "doggy day care" facilities to ensure that your dog receives the TLC and companionship it will need in your absence.
Diarrhoea is similar to vomiting in that it is a clinical sign rather than a disease itself. Diarrhoea can be a sign of a mild digestive upset or of something more serious e.g. food poisoning or ingestion of other toxic materials. Acute and chronic diarrhoea can be life threatening, particularly in puppies or older dogs. If the diarrhoea lasts longer than a couple of hours, contains blood and the dog appears to be in pain and has a fever then veterinary attention is required immediately. Treatment in this case will include identification and appropriate treatment for the underlying condition causing the diarrhoea as well as fluid and electrolyte therapy. Mild cases can be treated at home by removing food for a period of 12 hours and then re-introducing small amounts of bland food (e.g. chicken and rice). Probiotics can also be a useful addition to improve the overall health of the affected dog’s intestines.
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There are various intestinal worms that can infect dogs and cats, with hook worms, round worms (ascarids), whip worms (mainly in dogs) and tapeworms being the main groups. Symptoms can include diarrhoea, bloody stools, weight loss, anaemia, pot belly, dry hair and/or general poor appearance. If left untreated, worm infestations can be fatal. Worms can be picked up from the mother (either in utero or via milk), from the environment (infected stools), from eating infected prey (lizard or mouse), or, in the case of tapeworms, from fleas. Worms can also be transmitted to humans.
Giardia intestinalis and Giardia duodenalis are single celled protozoan parasites, which inhabit the affected dog’s small intestine, causing clinical signs of Gardiasis. The protozoa attach themselves to the intestines and multiply. They may be directly swept through the intestines and appear in the infected dog’s faeces or they may develop into a tougher more durable ‘cyst’ form, which is again passed in the dogs faeces but is able to survive for long periods in the external environment. Dogs are infected by ingesting the cysts from contaminated water and the environment. Infected dogs may not show any clinical signs of Gardiasis, but they can still shed the protozoa from their systems, spreading the infection to other healthy animals. Infection and subsequent illness is more commonly seen in younger animals. Signs of infection include: chronic or intermittent diarrhoea that may appear ‘fatty’ and slimy, accompanied by a very foul smell. Weight loss is also possible if left untreated.